The authorities have developed a robot law regulating the activity turnover of robots in Russia. It defines the concept of “robot”, establishes its hazard classes, and also enshrines the principles of the relationship between a robot and a person. The robot law document, inter alia, prohibits the circulation of robots capable of making independent decisions on the use of weapons. The government can also create a registry of robots and their manufacturers.
The authorities want to ban the circulation of robots in Russia that are capable of independently making decisions about the use of weapons. The ban will also affect robots created for the purpose of committing crimes. The corresponding bill was developed by the head of the Federation Council Committee on Economic Policy Andrei Kutepov.
Kutepov proposes to classify robots according to the degree of their potential danger. The document defines four hazard classes: the first is high, the second is medium, the third is low, and the fourth class will include non-hazardous robots. The eligibility criteria will be established by the Government. Robots of the first, second and third classes are proposed to be classified as sources of increased danger.
The robot law document also proposes to create a state cadastre of models of robots and their components that are allowed for circulation on the territory of Russia. Robots, which are a source of increased danger, are subject, according to the bill, to mandatory entry into the cadastre, otherwise their circulation in Russia will be prohibited. Also, if the bill is adopted, a state register of entities operating in the field of turnover of robots and their modules will be created. It will include state military organizations, government agencies, legal entities, individual entrepreneurs who are engaged in repair, development, production, testing, maintenance, as well as export and import of robots that are sources of increased danger.
At the moment, a comprehensive draft law on the legal regulation of relations in the field of robot activity turnover has been sent for feedback to the Ministry of Economic Development and the Ministry of Digital Science.
The concept and types of robots.
The robot law also defines the concept of “robot” (robotic device, complex, system) as “a product of the achievements of digital technologies, consisting of two or more components, controlled by means of a computer program embedded in it.” In particular, a robot must be capable of both performing actions pre-programmed by a person and solving problems autonomously.
The document proposes to distinguish two types of robots – civil and service. Thus, civil robots pursue private interests, and their turnover is regulated by civil law. Service robots, whose activities are related to the interests of the state and society. Civil robots are categorized as industrial, service, medical, educational, and scientific. Officials – for the military (defense of the country and security of the state) and law enforcement (protection of public order).
The bill also identifies two types of robots, depending on the nature and degree of human participation in their functioning – controlled and autonomous. As Kutepov notes, these restrictions on their circulation are introduced in order to ensure the country’s defense and state security, protect public order and ensure public safety.
The document also talks about state support for legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in the field of robots turnover. Thus, the bill proposes to provide tax benefits, subsidies, grants and loans. In particular, state support can be aimed at educational services, information support, generating demand for robots, supporting exports and providing infrastructure.
The bill guarantees that the property of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs that carry out activities for the development, production, testing, installation, installation, maintenance, repair and disposal of robots is not subject to compulsory seizure, including nationalization and requisition (seizure of property with payment to the owner its cost).
As we can see, various countries of the world are beginning to look more closely at the field of robotics and artificial intelligence, perceiving robots as an integral part of life. Security robots, waiter robots, doctor robots, all of them will soon become quite affordable to hire. Realizing this, the EU, the USA, Asian countries, and Russia are striving to regulate legislation both at the local and global levels as soon as possible. That is why we consider robots not as a thing that can be bought or sold, but for us robots are full-fledged members of society who can be hired, reckoned with their rights, and who, sooner or later, will take their place in our society.