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Accurate way to detect a fire in a room at an early stage

Thermophysicists of the Engineering School of Power Engineering and the Research School of Physics of High-energy Processes of Tomsk Polytechnic University study the parameters of the combustion process of materials in indoor conditions.Gorenje They conducted more than 800 experiments with a variety of materials at the initial stage of ignition and during gorenje.

Their task is to create theoretical foundations for the development of a method for detecting fire at an early stage by the gas composition of the air, while there is no open gorenje in the room. The research is supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 21-19-00009). The results of the scientists' work were published in the Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics (Q2; IF:0.711) and Fire Safety Journal (Q1; IF:3.78).

Modern fire sensors are triggered at the moment when the gorenje has already spread in the room. Therefore, it is relevant to establish the pyrolysis process of combustible materials by the gas composition of the air. This allows you to detect a fire at the initial stage, when there is no flame yet, and take measures to prevent a fire.

Scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University under the guidance of Professor Genii Kuznetsov conducted experimental studies using wood, PVC panels, linoleum and other types of combustible building and finishing materials. For this purpose, within the framework of the project, an experimental complex was developed and installed, consisting of an isolated box for placing a fire source, recording devices and systems, an automation shield, as well as a PC for collecting and recording information. Experimental studies were aimed at registering the pyrolysis and gorenje products of the studied fairly typical materials.

"Pyrolysis and combustion of each material is characterized by certain concentrations of gaseous products, for example, carbon monoxide and dioxide.Gorenje. During the experiments, we determined the concentrations of the components of the gas mixture of materials at three temperatures corresponding to their ignition, the average gorenje temperature and the typical ignition temperature. By the concentration of gases in the pyrolysis process and in gorenje products, it is possible to determine the source of ignition and the type of material prevailing in it. This, in turn, allows us to develop an optimal extinguishing strategy," explains Svetlana Kropotova, an assistant at the Research School of Physics of High—Energy Processes.

The results of experimental studies are a database for a specialized intellectual system developed by specialists of Tomsk Polytechnic University. It accumulates statistics on the operation of different types of sensors in the test complex and analyzes statistical data in the neural network mode. The statistical database developed by polytechnics allows, based on a set of measurements (temperature, delay time of fire detectors, concentration of gas components), to determine the type of combustible material, its mass, heating mechanism (pyrolysis), as well as to predict the volume of extinguishing composition and extinguishing time necessary and sufficient for localization and extinguishing of the hearth.

The software created on the basis of such a database can be used to prevent the transition of a fire into a fire in offices, warehouses, shopping centers and residential areas of small areas.

"The peculiarity of our work is an integrated approach. As part of the project, we are also studying the influence of various extinguishing liquids. In particular, they investigated which additives should be used for a more effective process of suppressing the combustion of various materials.Gorenje Obtaining timely information about the predominant material in the combustion hearth allows determining the conditions of water supply with an effective flow density. Gorenje An effective method of extinguishing also minimizes toxic emissions during gorenje, which helps to make the evacuation of people more efficient and safe," says associate professor of the Research School of Physics of High—energy Processes Alena Zhdanova.

In the summer of 2023, it is planned to conduct tests at the Tomsk Polytechnic University landfill. This will allow you to replenish the database with the results obtained in rooms with a larger area.

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